Cultural heritage and law
Until the pre-revolution constitution, no laws were based cultural heritage and "cultural heritage" didn’t have dignity in public opinion. meeting of naser-eddin Shah on a trip to Europe with museums and monuments, had a devastating effect on him. After returning from his first trip abroad in 1290 BC, he ordered to construct the royal palace museum. This museum should be the monarch’s and the government's first museum. The museum in Europe did not appeal him, so he gave orders for a new museum, old mansion north of Golestan garden destroyed and in its place a good place to arrange the new one .and so they built Museum Hall, the hall, pool house and other Accessories.
This building was finished in 1299 BC under the name Salam Hall or crowning Hall . about this building, etemad al saltane writes: "The royal museum is full of precious metals, cutting-edge scientific and war ammunition treasures and works of old objects and instruments, unique diverse artifacts and allegorical paintings of famous authors and curtains of synthetic famous factories and porcelain and Chinese and crystals and old coins with picture of by Iran's supreme rulers. "in 1316 the major part of the work of the Museum were transferred to the treasury the Melli Bank at the time of the first Pahlavi.
At the time of the mozafar al din Shah by return of Iranian graduates from abroad, in 1315, "anjoman e maaref" was established to promote education in a new way. This had a significant impact on the development of culture and Iranian students became familiar with the history of their land.
Name of Ministry of Science changed to "vezarat e maaref" in prerevolutionary times. In lunar year of 1328 "Administrative Law and Fine Arts Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs" was adopted by the parliament.
After the Constitutional Revolution name of the Ministry of Science was changed to "the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs and Fine Arts" and parliament adopted "Administrative Law and Fine Arts Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs"
Morteza Qoli Khan Sani'odowleh in lunar year of 1327 became the head of the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs. He was the first one to think about establishing an office to regulate the digging process of ancient object and the revenue that was brought from this works to the government.
his presidency was coincided with French De Morgan excavations at Susa. Sani'odowleh’s ideas didn’t last long but eventually at the time of Murtaza Khan Mumtaz-ul-Mulk and Ibrahim Hakimi in the years 1295 and 1297 the Department of Archaeology or office in the old building in north-School Education Academy was founded under the supervision of Iraj Mirza Jalal al-Mulk and got the name National Museum. The museum exhibits 270 items and objects. In the first Pahlavi era after bying the mansion Masoudieh buildings for the Ministry of Education in 1304, the national museumobjects were transferred to the Hall of Mirrors in Masoudieh mansion.
In 1304 thanks to a number of cultural figures, National Heritage Association was formed and its constitution was published. According to the provisions of this constituition in 25 Mehr 1306 the government hired Andre Godard the French in Iran as archeology manager. He began working in 1308 in Iran. In 12 Aban 1309 Atigat law approved by parliament. According to the first article of this law, all buildings and monuments ranging from the works of movable and immovable are national heritage until the end of the Qajar period. According to the same law should part of the artifacts that has been excavated in the scientific and commercial be kept in the museum
the Ministry of Culture and art Founded in 1343, and was given the duty of various management in the field of cultural heritage such as establishing the Department of Museums and archaeological center of Iran, the Office of monuments, the General Administration of Traditional Museum, Museum of Iran, the Directorate General monuments and the conservation works.
Victory of The Islamic Revolution and the dissolution of the Ministry of Culture and Art
With the victory of the glorious Islamic Revolution, the Ministry of Culture and art dissolved and some of the duties and missions of this ministry were transferred to two ministries: the Ministry of Culture and Higher Education and Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance.
Due to the collapse of the monarchy, the royal palaces were declared as cultural centers. Experts monuments went on to record and organize cultural relics in the Palace and opened its doors to the public.
Transferred units of the Ministry of Culture to the two ministries are as follows;
a. Ministry of Culture and Higher Education
1. Department of Traditional Arts
2. The Archaeology center of Iran
3. Center Museum of Anthropology
4. National Museum of Iran
5. Office of historical monuments
6. National Organization for the Protection of Antiquities
B. Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance
- Administration of Protection of Cultural Heritage of cities.
- General Directorate of Museums
- General Directorate of Monuments
- Department of palaces
In this period the General Directorate of Golestan Palace got the royal houses belonging to the cultural center and was under the supervision of Economic Affairs and Finance.
Establishment of country's cultural heritage organization
According to the law, On 11.10.1364, the Cultural Heritage Organization was formed.